synoptists

synoptists
The generic name given to writers of the three gospels, of Matthew, Mark, and Luke, since these gospels can be printed in three parallel columns and compared, whereas the gospel of John stands apart in chronology, content, and theology. Because the three synoptists have so much in common, it has been a major task of NT critics to try to solve the ‘synoptic problem’ and to determine their relationships. Who borrowed from whom? The most widely accepted theory is that Mark was written first and that Matt. and Luke reproduced Mark in their gospels. This still leaves a great deal of material in Matt. and Luke which is not in Mark, and the majority view is that both evangelists had access to a body of Jesus' teaching (‘Q’), which they added to the material they had taken from Mark; this theory is called the Two Document Hypothesis. Finally, both Matt. and Luke had independent traditions of Jesus' birth and infancy which they prefaced to their gospels and material about the resurrection at the end, as well as some other items (e.g. in Matt.'s Passion Narrative). The examination of the different orders and the verbal alterations (both additions and omissions) in the common material enables Redaction Critics [[➝ Redaction Criticism]] to formulate the theological stance of each evangelist. Scholars who reject the Q hypothesis propose what they maintain is a simpler solution, that Luke knew and made use of both Mark and Matthew. The Griesbach [[➝ Griesbach, Johann]] hypothesis, that Mark is an abbreviation of Matt. and Luke, has also won a few modern advocates. The synoptists filled the gap which resulted from the death of the Twelve and other immediate followers of Jesus. They provided in literary form his authority by telling the stories of his life and teaching which were preserved in the local communities.

Dictionary of the Bible.

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  • Synoptics — • The name given since Griesbach s time (about 1790) to the first three canonical Gospels Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Synoptics     Synoptics      …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Christology — • Christology is that part of theology which deals with Our Lord Jesus Christ Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Christology     Christology      …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Gospel of Mark — • The Second Gospel, like the other two Synoptics, deals chiefly with the Galilean ministry of Christ, and the events of the last week at Jerusalem Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Gospel of Mark     Gospel of Saint Mark …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Gospel of Saint John —     Gospel of St. John     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Gospel of St. John     This subject will be considered under the following heads:     I. Contents and Scheme of the Gospel;     II. Distinctive Peculiarities;     III. Authorship;     IV.… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Gospel of St. Matthew —     Gospel of St. Matthew     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Gospel of St. Matthew     I. CANONICITY     The earliest Christian communities looked upon the books of the Old Testament as Sacred Scripture, and read them at their religious assemblies.… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • The Passion of Christ (Gospel Accounts) —     The Passion of Christ (Gospel Accounts)     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► The Passion of Christ in the Four Gospels     See also DEVOTION TO THE PASSION OF CHRIST.     We have in the Gospels four separate accounts of the Passion of Our Lord, each …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • John, gospel of — Often called ‘the fourth gospel’ to mark its distinction from the three synoptics [[➝ synoptists]]. The gospel is certainly a narrative about Jesus and in this resembles the others and is quite different from the epistles in the NT. The gospel of …   Dictionary of the Bible

  • Biblical Chronology —     Biblical Chronology     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Biblical Chronology     Biblical chronology deals with the dates of the various events recorded in the Bible. It has to consider how far the Bible contains a chronology at all; to what extent… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • The Blessed Trinity —     The Blessed Trinity     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► The Blessed Trinity     This article is divided as follows:          I. Dogma of the Trinity;     II. Proof of the Doctrine from Scripture;     III. Proof of the Doctrine from Tradition;… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Third day in the Bible — IntroductionThe expression, Third Day, appears in several narratives in the Bible. (Occasionally, it is “three days.”) Some biblical interpreters have thought that some of these third day motifs have significance by signifying a certain divine… …   Wikipedia

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